What is the greenhouse effect ?
A part of sunlight , known as infrared radiation , is absorbed by some gases in the atmosphere and makes the earth warmer .Gases that contribute to this absorption of infrared radiation are called greenhouse gases. This is, in fact , a necessary process to make a suitable climate for life on our planet. After absorption , these radiations are re-emitted in different directions . The excessive amount of such gases, however, reduces the amount of radiation which should leave the earth atmosphere,. As a result , the earth becomes warmer and warmer . In short, greenhouse gases are essential elements in making life possible on the earth. Without such gases the temperature of the earth would be well below -10℃. Nevertheless, the problem arose ,when in the industrial age ,the amount of these gases showed a drastic increase due to human activities.
What are the greenhouse gases ?
There are some gases in the atmosphere that trap heat . They are mainly Carbone dioxide (CO2) , Nitrous oxide (N2O) , and Methane (CH4). As a result of burning fossil fuels CO2 is produced . Also some chemical reactions produce CO2. Plants have the main role in absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere. The second greenhouse gas is N2O which is produced during the process of wastewater treatment and burning fossil fuels . Methane , the third gas, is the result of natural gas , and oil production. Also , agricultural practices contribute to Methane emission. To measure their impact on the atmosphere a Global Warming Potential or GWP is calculated . In fact ,the higher GWP ,the more destructive these gases are .
What are the negative impacts of excessive greenhouse gases?
The global temperature is increasing as a direct result of human activities and increased amount of greenhouse gases . This negative phenomenon has come into scientists’ attention because of changes it has brought to the global climate. Devastating hurricanes , desertification of green areas , melting icebergs , heat waves, altering ecosystems , and rising sea level are few examples of how changing the temperature of earth is threatening our planet .
What is the solution ?
It seems that humans are the main cause of this problem. Based on the report provided by the IPCC we have to decrease the concentration of these gases by 45% until 2030.This requires international , national , and local collaboration to substitute green and renewable sources of energy for the fossil fuels. There are also other ways to keep our planet safe.